When referring to CFA Institute, CFA Institute membership, the CFA designation, or candidacy in the CFA Program, Members and Candidates must not misrepresent or exaggerate the meaning or implications of membership in CFA Institute, holding the CFA designation, or candidacy in the CFA Program.
- Guidance (Updated March 2018)
- Recommended Procedures for Compliance
- Application of the Standard
- Example 1 (Passing Exams in Consecutive Years)
- Example 2 (Right to Use CFA Designation)
- Example 3 (“Retired” CFA Institute Membership Status)
- Example 4 (Stating Facts about the CFA Designation and CFA Program)
- Example 5 (Order of Professional and Academic Designations) (Updated March 2018)
- Example 6 (Use of Fictitious Name)
Standard VII(B) is intended to prevent promotional efforts that make promises or guarantees that are tied to the CFA designation. Individuals must not exaggerate the meaning or implications of membership in CFA Institute, holding the CFA designation, or candidacy in the CFA Program. (Updated March 2018)
Standard VII(B) is not intended to prohibit factual statements related to the positive benefit of earning the CFA designation. However, statements referring to CFA Institute, the CFA designation, or the CFA Program that overstate the competency of an individual or imply, either directly or indirectly, that superior performance can be expected from someone with the CFA designation are not allowed under the standard.
Statements that highlight or emphasize the commitment of CFA Institute members, CFA charterholders, and CFA candidates to ethical and professional conduct or mention the thoroughness and rigor of the CFA Program are appropriate. Members and candidates may make claims about the relative merits of CFA Institute, the CFA Program, or the Code and Standards as long as those statements are implicitly or explicitly stated as the opinion of the speaker. Statements that do not express opinions must be supported by facts.
Standard VII(B) applies to any form of communication, including but not limited to communications made in electronic or written form (such as on firm letterhead, business cards, professional biographies, directory listings, printed advertising, firm brochures, or personal resumes) and oral statements made to the public, clients, or prospects.
CFA Institute Membership
The term “CFA Institute member” refers to “regular” and “affiliate” members of CFA Institute who have met the membership requirements as defined in the CFA Institute Bylaws. Once accepted as a CFA Institute member, the member must satisfy the following requirements to maintain his or her status:
- Remit annually to CFA Institute a completed Professional Conduct Statement, which renews the commitment to abide by the requirements of the Code and Standards and the CFA Institute Professional Conduct Program, and
- Pay applicable CFA Institute membership dues on an annual basis.
If a CFA Institute member fails to meet any of these requirements, the individual is no longer considered an active member. Until membership is reactivated, individuals must not present themselves to others as active members. They may state, however, that they were CFA Institute members in the past or refer to the years when their membership was active.
Using the CFA Designation
Those who have earned the right to use the Chartered Financial Analyst designation are encouraged to do so but only in a manner that does not misrepresent or exaggerate the meaning or implications of the designation. The use of the designation may be accompanied by an accurate explanation of the requirements that have been met to earn the right to use the designation.
“CFA charterholders” are those individuals who have earned the right to use the CFA designation granted by CFA Institute. These people have satisfied certain requirements, including completion of the CFA Program and required years of acceptable work experience. Once granted the right to use the designation, individuals must also satisfy the CFA Institute membership requirements (see above) to maintain their right to use the designation.
If a CFA charterholder fails to meet any of the membership requirements, he or she forfeits the right to use the CFA designation. Until membership is reactivated, individuals must not present themselves to others as CFA charterholders. They may state, however, that they were charterholders in the past.
Given the growing popularity of social media, where individuals may anonymously express their opinions, pseudonyms or online profile names created to hide a member’s identity should not be tagged with the CFA designation.
Use of the CFA designation by a CFA charterholder is governed by the terms and conditions of the annual Professional Conduct Statement Agreement, entered into between CFA Institute and its membership prior to commencement of use of the CFA designation and reaffirmed annually. (Updated March 2018)
Referring to Candidacy in the CFA Program
Candidates in the CFA Program may refer to their participation in the CFA Program, but such references must clearly state that an individual is a candidate in the CFA Program and must not imply that the candidate has achieved any type of partial designation. A person is a candidate in the CFA Program if:
- The person’s application for registration in the CFA Program has been accepted by CFA Institute, as evidenced by issuance of a notice of acceptance, and the person is enrolled to sit for a specified examination, or
- The registered person has sat for a specified examination, but exam results have not yet been received.
If an individual is registered for the CFA Program but declines to sit for an exam or otherwise does not meet the definition of a candidate as described in the CFA Institute Bylaws, then that individual is no longer considered an active candidate. Once the person is enrolled to sit for a future examination, his or her CFA Program candidacy resumes.
CFA Program candidates must never state or imply that they have a partial designation as a result of passing one or more levels or cite an expected completion date of any level of the CFA Program. Final award of the charter is subject to meeting the CFA Program requirements and approval by the CFA Institute Board of Governors.
If a candidate passes each level of the exam in consecutive years and wants to state that he or she did so, that is not a violation of Standard VII(B) because it is a statement of fact. If the candidate then goes on to claim or imply superior ability by obtaining the designation in only three years, however, he or she is in violation of Standard VII(B).
Exhibit 3 provides examples of proper and improper references to the CFA designation.
Exhibit 3 (Updated 2018)
|“Completion of the CFA Program has enhanced my portfolio management skills.”||“CFA charterholders achieve better performance results.”|
|“John Smith passed all three CFA Program examinations in three consecutive years.”||“John Smith is among the elite, having passed all three CFA Program examinations in three consecutive attempts.”|
|“The CFA designation is globally recognized and attests to a charterholder’s success in a rigorous and comprehensive study program in the field of investment management and research analysis.”||“As a CFA charterholder, I am the most qualified to manage client investments.”|
|“The credibility that the CFA designation affords and the skills the CFA Program cultivates are key assets for my future career development.”||“As a CFA charterholder, Jane White provides the best value in trade execution.”|
|“I enrolled in the CFA Program to obtain the highest set of credentials in the global investment management industry.”||“Enrolling as a candidate in the CFA Program ensures one of becoming better at valuing debt securities.”|
|“I passed Level I of the CFA Program.”||“CFA, Level II”|
|“I am a 20X1 Level III candidate in the CFA Program.”||“CFA, Expected 20X1”|
|“I passed all three levels of the CFA Program and may be eligible for the CFA charter upon completion of the required work experience.”||“CFA, Expected 20X1”
“John Smith, Charter Pending”
Recommended Procedures for Compliance
Misuse of a member’s CFA designation or CFA candidacy or improper reference to it is common by those in a member’s or candidate’s firm who do not possess knowledge of the requirements of Standard VII(B). As an appropriate step to reduce this risk, members and candidates should disseminate written information about Standard VII(B) and the accompanying guidance to their firm’s legal, compliance, public relations, and marketing departments.
For materials that refer to employees’ affiliation with CFA Institute, members and candidates should encourage their firms to create templates that are approved by a central authority (such as the compliance department) as being consistent with Standard VII(B). This practice promotes consistency and accuracy in the firm of references to CFA Institute membership, the CFA designation, and CFA candidacy.Back to top
Application of the Standard
Example 1 (Passing Exams in Consecutive Years):
An advertisement for AZ Investment Advisors states that all the firm’s principals are CFA charterholders and all passed the three examinations on their first attempts. The advertisement prominently links this fact to the notion that AZ’s mutual funds have achieved superior performance.
Comment: AZ may state that all principals passed the three examinations on the first try as long as this statement is true, but it must not be linked to performance or imply superior ability. Implying that (1) CFA charterholders achieve better investment results and (2) those who pass the exams on the first try may be more successful than those who do not violates Standard VII(B).
Example 2 (Right to Use CFA Designation):
Five years after receiving his CFA charter, Louis Vasseur resigns his position as an investment analyst and spends the next two years traveling abroad. Because he is not actively engaged in the investment profession, he does not file a completed Professional Conduct Statement with CFA Institute and does not pay his CFA Institute membership dues. At the conclusion of his travels, Vasseur becomes a self-employed analyst accepting assignments as an independent contractor. Without reinstating his CFA Institute membership by filing his Professional Conduct Statement and paying his dues, he prints business cards that display “CFA” after his name.
Comment: Vasseur has violated Standard VII(B) because his right to use the CFA designation was suspended when he failed to file his Professional Conduct Statement and stopped paying dues. Therefore, he no longer is able to state or imply that he is an active CFA charterholder. When Vasseur files his Professional Conduct Statement, resumes paying CFA Institute dues to activate his membership, and completes the CFA Institute reinstatement procedures, he will be eligible to use the CFA designation.
Example 3 (“Retired” CFA Institute Membership Status):
After a 25-year career, James Simpson retires from his firm. Because he is not actively engaged in the investment profession, he does not file a completed Professional Conduct Statement with CFA Institute and does not pay his CFA Institute membership dues. Simpson designs a plain business card (without a corporate logo) to hand out to friends with his new contact details, and he continues to put “CFA” after his name.
Comment: Simpson has violated Standard VII(B). Because he failed to file his Professional Conduct Statement and ceased paying dues, his membership has been suspended and he has given up the right to use the CFA designation. CFA Institute has procedures, however, for reclassifying a member and charterholder as “retired” and reducing the annual dues. If he wants to obtain retired status, he needs to file the appropriate paperwork with CFA Institute. When Simpson receives his notification from CFA Institute that his membership has been reclassified as retired and he resumes paying reduced dues, his membership will be reactivated and his right to use the CFA designation will be reinstated.
Example 4 (Stating Facts about the CFA Designation and CFA Program):
Rhonda Reese has been a CFA charterholder since 2000. In a conversation with a friend who is considering enrolling in the CFA Program, she states that she has learned a great deal from the CFA Program and that many firms require their employees to be CFA charterholders. She would recommend the CFA Program to anyone pursuing a career in investment management.
Comment: Reese’s comments comply with Standard VII(B). Her statements refer to facts: The CFA Program enhanced her knowledge, and many firms require the CFA designation for their investment professionals.
Example 5 (Order of Professional and Academic Designations):
Tatiana Prittima has earned both her CFA designation and a PhD in finance. She would like to cite both her accomplishments on her business card but is unsure of the proper method for doing so.
Comment: The order of designations cited on such items as resumes and business cards is a matter of personal preference. Prittima is free to cite the CFA designation either before or after citing her PhD. Multiple designations must be separated by a comma. (Updated March 2018)
Example 6 (Use of Fictitious Name):
Barry Glass is the lead quantitative analyst at CityCenter Hedge Fund. Glass is responsible for the development, maintenance, and enhancement of the proprietary models the fund uses to manage its investors’ assets. Glass reads several high-level mathematical publications and blogs to stay informed on current developments. One blog, run by Expert CFA, presents some intriguing research that may benefit one of CityCenter’s current models. Glass is under pressure from firm executives to improve the model’s predictive abilities, and he incorporates the factors discussed in the online research. The updated output recommends several new investments to the fund’s portfolio managers.
Comment: “Expert CFA” has violated Standard VII(B) by using the CFA designation inappropriately. As with any research report, authorship of online comments must include the charterholder’s full name along with any reference to the CFA designation.
See also Standard V(A), which Glass has violated, for guidance on diligence and reasonable basis.